There are many different ways to write Kuraŋo.

Formal script: kuraito Edit

kuraito is the official orthography of Kuraŋo. It is a syllabic alphabet where each character represents a vowel, and diacritics change the consonant that goes in the syllable's nucleus.

The four characters Edit

kuraito features four main characters--one for each of Kuraŋo's distinct vowels.


These base characters are known as "pointers" for the way they "point" to where the vowels are in the vowel trapezium.

The modality diacritic Edit

Seeing as Kuraŋo has a two-way modality contrast (voicing versus voiced), there are two possible diacritics for voicing. The [+voice] diacritic is represented with a jagged line that occurs on the lower line in the pointer. The [-voice] diacritic is null (a straight line). Since nasals and sonorants do not contrast in voice, the voicing diacritic is not used with them.


The place diacritics Edit

Kuraŋo has a three-way place contrast, so three place diacritics are necessary. These are marked with a semicircle on the end of the lower line of the pointer. The closed end of the semicircle points downwards for a bilabial articulation, upwards for an alveolar articulation, and to the right for a velar articulation. The glottalic place of articulation is not marked using a diacritic as it only occurs phonologically.


The manner diacritics Edit

Kuraŋo has a four-way manner contrast, so four manner diacritics are necessary. The grouping of manner diacritics is based on the continuity of oral airflow, so nasals and stops belong to one class of diacritics (vertical lines), while fricatives and sonorants belong to the other class (horizontal lines). Stops are expressed as one vertical line perpendicular to the lower line of the pointer, nasals as two vertical lines. Fricatives are expressed as one horizontal line parallel to the lower line of the pointer, sonorants as two horizontal lines. Since the lower line of each pointer is more-or-less one horizontal line, the manner diacritic for fricatives is not marked. The absence of fricative marking also makes it so sonorants are only represented with one horizontal perpendicular line.


Other diacritics Edit

Kuraŋo has three other diacritics that deal with vowel qualities and borrowings.

The first of these diacritics is a circle placed upon the right end of the top line of the pointer. This indicates that the word that this syllable belongs to is borrowed from another language (usually English).


The second diacritic marks a syllable that begins with a glottal stop (orthographically, a syllable that is a vowel by itself.) This is marked by a circle placed upon the right end of the bottom line of the pointer. The third diacritic indicates that the marked syllable has a long vowel, and is marked by both a place diacritic and the circle that is characteristic of a glottal-stop-initial syllable.


Numerals in kuraito Edit

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Informal script: Romanized kuraito Edit

kuraito can be romanized in a couple of ways. The first is an attempt at an adaptation of the formal alphasyllabary using standard keyboard symbols.

>v, >^, <v, and <^ take the place of the four main pointers. The voicing diacritic is marked using two backslashes, \\. Place is marked using b, a, and v for "bilabial," "alveolar," and "velar." Manner is marked using hyphens - and vertical bars |. Stops are represented using |, nasals by ||, fricatives are once again not marked, and sonorants by -. The circle diacritics are marked using a lowercase o, either before or after the syllable.

For example, gariti (above) would be written as o<v\\|v o<^-a o<^|a.

As you can see, this is not a very practical way of writing, so most people use simple IPA when romanizing kuraito. The IPA can be further simplified into the standard English alphabet:

IPA to English Alphabet in Kuraŋo Orthography
IPA English Orthography
Voiceless Bilabial Fricative ɸ f
Voiced Bilabial Fricative β v
Bilabial Sonorant w
Alveolar Sonorant ɾ or ɹ r
Velar Nasal ŋ ng
Voiced Velar Fricative ɣ rh
Velar Sonorant ɰ j